advanced CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) questions

1. What is the purpose of the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) in a switched network?

STP prevents network loops by creating a loop-free logical topology in Ethernet networks.

2. Explain the difference between static routing and dynamic routing.

Static routing requires manual configuration of routes, while dynamic routing protocols allow routers to exchange routing information and dynamically adjust routing tables.

3. What is VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) and how does it work?

VTP is used to synchronize VLAN information across a switched network. It allows VLAN configuration changes to be made on one switch and automatically propagated to all other switches in the same VTP domain.

4. Describe the process of DHCP address allocation.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) dynamically assigns IP addresses to hosts on a network. When a host connects to the network, it sends a DHCP discover message. A DHCP server responds with a DHCP offer, and if accepted, the server sends a DHCP request message, and finally, the DHCP server sends a DHCP acknowledgment.

5. What is the purpose of Access Control Lists (ACLs) in networking?

ACLs are used to control traffic by filtering traffic based on various criteria such as source and destination IP addresses, port numbers, and protocol types.

6. What is the difference between TCP and UDP?

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of data, while UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless protocol that does not guarantee delivery and does not provide sequencing or acknowledgment of received data.

7. What is NAT (Network Address Translation) and how does it work?

NAT is used to translate private IP addresses to public IP addresses and vice versa, allowing multiple devices within a network to share a single public IP address.

8. Explain the purpose of Quality of Service (QoS) in networking.

QoS is used to prioritize network traffic and ensure that certain types of traffic receive preferential treatment, such as ensuring that voice or video traffic is given higher priority than other types of traffic.

9. What is EtherChannel and how does it improve network performance?

EtherChannel is a technology used to bundle multiple physical links between two switches into a single logical link, increasing bandwidth and providing redundancy.

10. What is the purpose of a routing protocol, and give examples of dynamic routing protocols?

Routing protocols are used by routers to dynamically learn and share routing information with other routers. Examples include RIP (Routing Information Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol).

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